Nanoparticles (NPS) are produced by a "terminated gas condensation" (TGC) method. In this technique, a DC magnetron is used to sputter target material. The sputtered atoms enter the high pressure condensation zone where their mean free path becomes very small and they quickly thermalize. Nanoparticles are formed as these thermalized atoms migrate towards the expansion zone.
The NPS generated by NanoGen50 source tend to posses one additional electronic charge and this allows them to be electrostatically manipulated either through deflection, focusing or acceleration. The acceleration towards the substrate allows the particle impact energy to be controlled precisely. At low acceleration (<<1eV per atom) the particles soft land without deformation. At higher energies they undergo a small degree of interface mixing and form a layer of bound nanoparticles. Such nanoparticle manipulation produces a variety of coating morphologies from nanoparticle powder, through porous films to crystalline structures.